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Chronic lung disease remains a major public health problem, especially in less developed countries

lung scan
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Globally, chronic lung disease ( COPD) accounted for more than 212 million cases, 3 million deaths and 74 million years lost to ill health or disability in 2019 BMJ today .

Findings show that while age-adjusted rates for COPD have declined over the past 30 years, absolute numbers remain On the rise, smoking and air pollution are responsible for most of the health burden, especially among men.

As we age, COPD will continue to be a bigger problem in the future, researchers warn.

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is the name for a group of common lung diseases that cause difficulty breathing. It primarily affects middle-aged and older adults who smoke or have a history of smoking, and while preventable, once established, there is no cure.

But previous estimates of COPD limited to specific risk factors or to localized regions now need to be updated.

Therefore, the researchers used data from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study to update the prevalence (cases) , deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs)—a composite measure of quantity and quality of life—attributable to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 204 countries and territories between 1990 and 2019.

In this study, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) definition of COPD was used.

Data are assessed by age, gender and sociodemographic index used to determine how a country or area is developing The position within the range, ranging from 0 (least developed) to 1 (most developed).

Their findings show that in 2019, COPD accounted for 212.3 million cases, 3.3 million deaths and 74.4 million global DALYs.

2,638, 42.5 and 926 cases, deaths per 100,000 people when ranked by age (age-standardized) and DALY incidence; compared with 1990 decreased by 8.7%, 41.7% and 39.8% respectively.

In 2019, Denmark, Myanmar and Belgium had the highest age-standardized COPD cases, while Egypt, Georgia and Nicaragua had the largest increase in age-standardized cases over the entire study period.

In 2019, Nepal and Japan had the highest and lowest age-standardized death rates per 100,000, respectively, Nepal and Barbados The highest and lowest age-standardized DALY rates per 100,000 people.

In men, the global DALY rate for COPD increases until age 85-89 and then increases with age and decreased, while for women the rate increased in the highest age group (95 years and older).

Smoking is the leading risk factor for disability to COPD, accounting for 46% of DALYs, followed by environmental particulate pollution ( 21%) and occupational exposure to particulate matter, gases and fumes (16%).

At the national level, in 2019, the burden of COPD increased with socioeconomic development, sociodemographic The index reached around 0.4 and then fell again.

One possible reason for this is that air pollution (a major cause of lung disease) has Socio-demographic indices are lower, while countries with higher socio-demographic indices are declining, officials said.

They point out some study limitations. For example, only a few high-quality epidemiological databases are available for estimating the burden of COPD, and some risk factors, such as genetic susceptibility – although rare – cannot be taken into account. Differences in disease definitions in many countries and the high probability of underdiagnosing COPD may also affect the results.

These limitations highlight the importance of improving the accuracy of data collection and using more comprehensive case definitions, which will allow Comparisons between countries are more valid, note the authors.

Nonetheless, they say the study provides an up-to-date analysis of global, regional and national data from 1990 to 2019 Comprehensive estimates of levels and trends associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its risk factors.

They concluded: “Although the burden of COPD has decreased, the disease remains a major public Health concerns, especially in countries with low sociodemographic indices. Prevention programmes should focus on smoking cessation, air quality improvement and occupational reduction to further reduce the burden of COPD.”

More information: Burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and its attributable risk factors in 204 countries and territories, 1990-2019: The 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study Results,

BMJ (2022). DOI: 10.1136/bmj-2021-069679

Citation : Chronic lung disease remains a major public health problem , especially in less developed countries (2022, July 27), retrieved August 30, 2022, from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2022-07-chronic-lung-disease-major-health . html

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