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Research shows older age and smoking are the most important risk factors for developing any cancer

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A project led by US researchers A new large study by the Cancer Society (ACS) shows that older age and smoking are the two most important risk factors associated with relative and absolute risk of developing any cancer over a five-year period. The findings also suggest that, in addition to age and smoking history, clinicians should consider excess body fat, any family history of cancer, and several other factors that may help patients determine whether they could benefit from increased cancer screening or preventive interventions. . The data were published today in the journal

Cancer .

“Single cancer type-specific screening recommendations are based on risk factors for that particular type of cancer,” said Dr. Alpa Patel, senior vice president of population sciences at the American Cancer Society, and lead author of the study. “Our findings are encouraging as we work to identify subgroups in the general population that could benefit from increased cancer screening and prevention.”

In this study, researchers analyzed two ACS prospective cohort studies, the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutritional Cohort and the Cancer Prevention Study-3, to determine the association with any cancer over a five-year period. The absolute risk exceeds 2% of the associated risk factors. The authors studied 429,991 participants in the United States who had no previous personal history of cancer and were followed for up to five years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association. Using these HRs, absolute risk by age is calculated using a personalized Coherent Absolute Risk Estimation.

Results showed that 15,226 invasive participants were diagnosed with cancer within five years of enrollment. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk of any cancer was strongest in current smokers compared with never-smokers. Among men, alcohol consumption, family history of cancer, red meat consumption and physical inactivity were also associated with risk. In women, body mass index (BMI), type 2 diabetes, hysterectomy, parity, family history of cancer, high blood pressure, tubal ligation, and physical inactivity were associated with cancer risk. The absolute five-year risk at age 50 was greater than 2% in nearly all people over age 50 and some people under age 50, including current or former smokers (less than 30 years after quitting) and long-term nonsmokers. 25 or a family history of grade 1 cancer. The absolute 5-year risk is as high as 29% for men and 25% for women.

“As we consider the likelihood that future tests may be able to identify several types of cancer, we need to start to understand who is most at risk of developing any type of cancer,” Patel said. “These types of data are not widely available, but are necessary to inform future screening options, such as blood-based early detection tests for multiple cancers that could help save lives.”

Even More information: Alpa V. Patel et al, Relative and absolute 5‐year cancer risk of key risk factors for enhanced cancer screening Detection and Prevention,

Cancer (2022). DOI: 10.1002/cncr.34396

Citation : Research shows that older age and smoking are the most important risk factors for developing any cancer (3 August 2022 Date), retrieved August 25, 2022 html

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